Tag Archives: cities

Environmental migration & cities in the context of global environmental change (S.B. Adamo)

Author

Susana B. Adamo

Keywords

Environment, environmental migration, cities, migration inflows, GEC impacts, risk, secondary migration, displacement

Abstract

There is a renewed interest in environmental migration and displacement that is fueled by concerns about the impacts of global environmental change on human populations. Regardless on-going debates about magnitudes and definitions, recent research on the topic shows a complex picture where environmental events are rarely the only drivers, several factors — among them the characteristics of the event and the degree of vulnerability — influence the outcome, and different types of mobility can be distinguished. Within this framework and in the context of global processes, research on the interactions among cities, environmental migration and GEC present two interrelated perspectives. On the one hand, cities are increasingly exposed to the impacts of GEC events, which can trigger environmental migration to other regions. On the other hand, they are the most common destinations of migration inflows, and environmental change outside of cities can exacerbate the influx of migrants to cities. The case of New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina dramatically illustrates these issues, highlighting the policy and governance dimensions.

Citation

(2010) Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2(3), 161–165

Paper

Environmental migration and cities in the context of global environmental change

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Gender Equality for Smarter Cities: Challenges and Progress (UN-HABITAT)

Author

UN-HABITAT

Keywords

Towns and cities gender inequalities; urbanisation

Abstract

Towns and cities are increasingly important places for tackling gender inequalities. This book highlights some of the key gender issues we face in the context of rapid urbanisation in the developing world. It also provides an overview of UN-HABITAT’s work in promoting gender equality in all its activities and programmes. Creating equal opportunities and protecting rights for both women and men contributes to better living conditions for the urban poor and achievement of the Millennium development goals.

Citation

UN-HABITAT, Gender Equality for Smarter Cities: Challenges and Progress(UN-HABITAT, 2009)

Report

Gender Equality for Smarter Cities: Challenges and Progress

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The Implications of Population Growth and Urbanization for Climate Change (D. Satterthwaite)

Author

David Satterthwaite

Keywords

Climate change, consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, population growth, urbanization

Abstract

This paper considers the implications of population growth and urbanization for climate change. It emphasizes that it is not the growth in (urban or rural) populations that drives the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions but rather, the growth in consumers and in their levels of consumption. A significant proportion of the world’s urban (and rural) populations have consumption levels that are so low that they contribute little or nothing to such emissions. If the lifetime contribution to GHG emissions of a person added to the world’s population varies by a factor of more than 1,000 depending on the circumstances into which they are born and their life choices, it is misleading to see population growth as the driver of climate change. A review of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions levels for nations, and how they changed between 1980 and 2005 (and also between 1950 and 1980), shows little association between nations with rapid population growth and nations with high GHG emissions and rapid GHG emissions growth; indeed, it is mostly nations with very low emissions per person (and often only slowly growing emissions) that have had the highest population growth rates. The paper also discusses how in the much-needed planning for global emissions reduction, provision must be made to allow low-income, low-consumption households with GHG emissions per person below the global “fair share” level to increase their consumption.

Citation

(2009) 21 Environment and Urbanization 545-567

Paper

The Implications of Population Growth and Urbanization for Climate Change

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Review of urban climate research in (sub)tropical regions (M. Roth)

Author

Matthias Roth (National University of Singapore , Singapore )

Keywords

Developing world, Cities, Urban population, Environmental degradation, Tropical urban climatology, Tropical urban heat island, Tropical urban energy balance

Abstract

Over the last 50 years the developing world, much of which is located in (sub)tropical regions, has seen a dramatic growth of its urban population associated with serious degradation of environmental quality. The total number of (sub)tropical urban climate studies, however; is still small (<20% of all urban climate studies). The available work is further biased towards descriptive studies rather than process work that seeks to indicate the physical climatology of (sub)tropical cities. The available results allow for a preliminary comparison with data from temperate latitudes. Urban heat island (UHI) intensities are generally lower compared to those of temperate cities with comparable population and show a seasonal variation with lower (higher) intensities during the wet (dry) season. (Sub)tropical population-based relations may exist but insufficient appropriate data is available to confirm a logarithmic relationship or systematic differences between different climate types. The (sub)tropical energy balance studies are biased towards dry, clear sky conditions. The amount of net radiation dissipated by sensible heat during daytime is about 40% which is similar to values observed in (sub)urban areas of cities located in temperate climates. Energy partitioning is modulated by water availability and higher percentage of vegetation promotes latent heat flux at the expense of surface heat storage. The apparent strong influence of vegetation and water availability on the energy partitioning irrespective of the climate type, suggests vegetation to be an effective means to reduce heat storage uptake during daytime and hence has the potential to effectively mitigate the nocturnal heat island. It is important to ensure that the rapidly expanding cities of the developing world incorporate climatological concerns in their design to provide a better living and working environment for a large segment of the world’s inhabitants.

Citation

(2007) 27 International Journal of Climatology 1859-1873

Paper

Review of urban climate research in (sub)tropical regions

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Climate Change And Sustainable Development New Challenges for Poverty Reduction (M.A.M. Salih)

Author

M.A. Mohamed Salih

Keywords

Polycentric Systems, Ecosystems Services Approach, Income, Inequality, Poverty, Ecospace, Humanspace, Climate Change, Future Generations of Humankind, International Environmental Law, Child Rights, Climate Change, Environmental Security, Politics, Markets, Resource Conflicts, Cooperation, Climate Conflict, Global Warming, Rural Poverty, Cotton Production, Environmental Degradation, Spatializing Development, Environmental Discourses, Sustainable Development, Globalization, Digital Dematerialization, Economic Mechanisms, Ecological Cities, Biofuel Production, Food Security

Abstract

This unique book provides cutting-edge knowledge and analyses of the consequences that climate change will have for sustainable development and poverty reduction within the context of global development.

Exploring alternative resource management approaches including federal resource management governance, ecosystem services, digital dematerialization, ecological cities, biofuels versus food, and children and climate change, this innovative volume provides fresh insights on the human condition with regards to the current debates on climate change. The distinguished contributors examine climate change induced processes that present profound challenges to sustainable development and poverty reduction at the local, national and global levels.

This groundbreaking study will be a welcome addition for graduate and post-graduate students in development and environmental studies. It will also have great appeal to scientists, policy-makers and researchers in these fields.

Citation

Climate Change And Sustainable Development: New Challenges for Poverty Reduction (Edward Elgar, UK 2009)

Paper

Climate Change And Sustainable Development: New Challenges for Poverty Reduction

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