Tag Archives: Resilience

Global environmental change and migration: Governance challenges (K. Warner)

Author

Koko Warner

Keywords

Environmentally induced migration, Governance, Complexity, Climate adaptation, Resilience

Abstract

Claims have been made that global environmental change could drive anywhere from 50 to almost 700 million people to migrate by 2050. These claims belie the complexity of the multi-causal relationship between coupled social–ecological systems and human mobility, yet they have fueled the debate about “environmentally induced migration”. Empirical evidence, notably from a 23 case study scoping study supported by the European Commission, confirms that currently environmental factors are one of many variables driving migration. Fieldwork reveals a multifaceted landscape of patterns and contexts for migration linked to rapid- and slow-onset environmental change today. Migration and displacement are part of a spectrum of possible responses to environmental change. Some forms of environmentally induced migration may be adaptive, while other forms of forced migration and displacement may indicate a failure of the social–ecological system to adapt. This diversity of migration potentials linked to environmental change presents challenges to institutions and policies not designed to cope with the impacts of complex causality, surprises and uncertainty about social–ecological thresholds, and the possibility of environmental and migration patterns recombining into a new patterns. The paper highlights fieldwork on rapid- and slow-onset environmentally induced migration in Mozambique, Vietnam, and Egypt. Current governance frameworks for human mobility are partially equipped to manage new forms of human mobility, but that new complementary modes of governance will be necessary. The paper concludes with challenges for governance of environmentally induced migration under increasing complexity, as well as opportunities to enhance resilience of both migrants and those who remain behind.

Citation

(2010) 20(3) Global Environmental Change 402-413

Paper

Global environmental change and migration: Governance challenges

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Vulnerability and globalisation: mediating impacts on society (P. Kirby)

Author

Peadar Kirby

Keywords

Vulnerability, globalisation, resilience, human rights, environment

Abstract

This article introduces the concept of vulnerability and discusses its utility for the identification of the impacts upon society, particularly upon human rights and the environment, of the multiple processes that we label ‘globalisation’. The author argues that vulnerability, an essentially two-sided concept, is intimately informed by the notion of ‘resilience’ – a principle well able to guide practical policy and political responses to vulnerability. The author contends that vulnerability impacts society, in significant part, through globalisation – or, in more precise terms – that globalisation deepens vulnerability while diminishing, in many cases, the resilience required to adapt to or mitigate vulnerability. These contentions are supported, in part, by reflections drawn from two case studies, one illustrative of the link between globalisation and vulnerability, the other revealing the ways in which vulnerability can be contested or mitigated. The author’s examination suggests that the concept of vulnerability usefully focuses attention on the key ways in which globalisation impacts upon society, including human rights and the environment, while the concept of resilience has particular utility for the development of responses, offering a rich source of guidance for policies and actions aimed at responding to the complexities of vulnerability in a globalised world.

Citation

(2011) 2(1) Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 86-105

Paper

Vulnerability and globalisation: mediating impacts on society

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Transboundary River Governance in the Face of Uncertainty: Resilience Theory … (B. Cosens)

Author

Barbara Cosens

Keywords

Social-ecological systems, democracy, Columbia River , management, multi-jurisdictional watersheds

Abstract

Fostering resilience in social-ecological systems is a choice that we, as a democratic society, can make if we desire to continue to receive the massive benefits of the ecosystems we rely on. It is not the path we are currently on as reflected in our administrative framework, our substantive natural resource law, and specifically, our management of the Columbia River. Should we choose resilience, restructuring the current system is no small task. This paper looks primarily at the administrative framework that must change from the model of massive state and federal agencies taking a command and control approach to an infusion of resources and capacity building at the local level, while retaining overlapping state, federal and international programs to provide oversight and research and to coordinate across multiple jurisdictions. Such reform will require authorization for greater flexibility in decision-making while relying on public participation and input as a large source of accountability. It will require expenditures on monitoring the effects of decisions and the flexibility to respond to the results of monitoring. In short, the recognition of the complexity in the social-ecological system, coupled with our growing realization of the complete dependence of the human race on the ability of the ecological system to serve it, requires reform of the administrative state to allow us, as a responsible society, to respond to the challenge of managing multi-jurisdictional watersheds.

Citation

(2010) 30 Journal of Land, Resources, and Environmental Law 229

Paper

Transboundary River Governance in the Face of Uncertainty: Resilience Theory and the Columbia River Treaty

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Beyond Environmental Law: Policy Proposals… (A.C. Flournoy & D.M. Driesen)

Editor(s)

Alyson C. Flournoy ( University of Florida , USA )
David M. Driesen ( Syracuse University , USA )

Keywords

National Environmental Legacy, procedural reform; ecologies of restoration, resilience, and reconciliation, citizen science, next generation, environmental law, the constitution, climate change, federalism, technological change, environmental patriotism

Abstract

This book offers a vision for the third generation of environmental law designed to enhance its ability to protect our environment. The book presents two core proposals, an Environmental Legacy Act to preserve a defined environmental legacy for future generations and an Environmental Competition Statute to spark movement to new clean technologies. The first proposal would require, for the first time, that the federal government define an environmental legacy that it must preserve for future generations. The second would establish a market competition to maximize environmental protection. The balance of the book provides complementary proposals and analysis. The first generation of environmental law sought broad protection of health and the environment in a fairly fragmented way. The second sought to enhance environmental law’s efficiency through cost-benefit analysis and market mechanisms. These proposals seek to create a broader, more creative approach to solving environmental problems.

Proposes bold ambitious reforms designed to make law more environmentally protective and suggests how we could reinforce the concept of sustainability • Goes beyond the second generation reforms that promoted more cost-benefit analysis and reliance on market mechanisms in the United States • Seeks to take advantage of market creativity and advanced information processing capacity in new and creative ways

Citation

Alyson C. Flournoy and David M. Driesen, Beyond Environmental Law: Policy Proposals for a Better Environmental Future (CUP, New York 2010)

Book

Beyond Environmental Law: Policy Proposals for a Better Environmental Future

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Practical Environmentalism (K.P. Sherman, J. Van Lanen and R.T. Sherman)

Author(s)

Kathleen Pickering Sherman (Colorado State University)
James Van Lanen (Alaska Department of Fish and Game, USA)
Richard T. Sherman (Oglala Lakota Tribe, USA)

Keywords

Resilience, indigenous knowledge, community-based natural resource management, political ecology, native Americans, stewardship

Abstract

Parallels exist between the academic theory of a dwelling approach to resilience and the Indigenous Stewardship Model developed on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota. In both approaches, sustainable resource management depends on a practical environmentalism that creates linkages between local community members and their surrounding ecosystem. Research on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation reveals that Lakota people possess a conservation ethic that stems from their physical connection to place. However, tribal, state, and federal land policies create structural barriers that reduce access of Lakota households to the land, which in turn reduces adaptability and resilience in their ecological practice. To overcome these barriers, Lakota households envision local stewardship of reservation lands and resources. Particular emphasis is placed on the intergenerational transfer of knowledge to Lakota youth, to transcend local and political conflict, and to reestablish social and cultural relationships with the reservation’s ecology.

Citation

( 1 July 2010 ) Human Ecology Online

Paper

Practical Environmentalism on the Pine Ridge Reservation: Confronting Structural Constraints to Indigenous Stewardship

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