Tag Archives: population

The New Accountability: Environmental Responsibility Across Borders (M. Mason)

Author(s)

Michael Mason

Keywords

population, accountability, environmental protection, health, ecological sustainability, borders, international agreements, national territories, state responsibility, pollution, transnational corporations

Abstract

The growth of pollution that crosses national borders represents a significant threat to human health and ecological sustainability. Various international agreements exist between countries to reduce risks to their populations, however there is often a mismatch between national territories of state responsibility and transboundary hazards. All too often, state priorities do not correspond to the priorities of the people affected by pollution, who often have little recourse against major polluters, particularly transnational corporations operating across national boundaries. Drawing on case studies, The New Accountability provides a fresh understanding of democratic accountability for transboundary and global harm and argues that environmental responsibility should be established in open public discussions about harm and risk. Most critically it makes the case that, regardless of nationality, affected parties should be able to demand that polluters and harm producers be held accountable for their actions and if necessary provide reparations.

Citation

Michael Mason, The New Accountability: Environmental Responsibility Across Borders (Earthscan, 2005)

Book

The New Accountability: Environmental Responsibility Across Borders

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Environmental change and out-migration: evidence from Nepal (D.S. Massey, et al)

Author(s)

Douglas S. Massey, William G. Axinn and Dirgha J. Ghimire

Keywords

Environment, Population, Migration, Land cover, Agricultural productivity

Abstract

Scholars and activists have hypothesized a connection between environmental change and out-migration. In this paper, we test this hypothesis using data from Nepal. We operationalize environmental change in terms of declining land cover, rising times required to gather organic inputs, increasing population density, and perceived declines in agricultural productivity. In general, environmental change is more strongly related to short- than long-distance moves. Holding constant the effects of other social and economic variables, we find that local moves are predicted by perceived declines in productivity, declining land cover, and increasing time required to gather firewood. Long-distance moves are predicted by perceived declines in productivity, but the effect is weaker than in the model of short-distance mobility. We also show that effects of environmental change vary by gender and ethnicity, with women being more affected by changes in the time required to gather fodder and men by changes in the time to gather firewood, and high-caste Hindus generally being less affect than others by environmental change.

Citation

(2010) 32(2/3) Population and Environment 109-136

Paper

Environmental change and out-migration: evidence from Nepal

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The population, agriculture, and environment nexus in Latin America (D.L. Carr, et al)

Author(s)

David L. Carr (UC Santa Barbara)
Anna Carla Lopez (UC Santa Barbara)
Richard E. Bilsborrow (University of North Carolina)

Keywords

Population, Environment, Latin America, Migration, Land use, Land cover, LUCC, Demography, Deforestation, Agriculture

Abstract

Unprecedented population growth and migration accompanied equally unprecedented land use and land cover change in Latin America during the latter decades of the twentieth century. Country-level data are examined with bivariate statistics to determine relationships between changes in population patterns and land use (agriculture and forest cover) from 1961 to 2001. In South America, large forest areas were eliminated during the period, while exceptionally high rates of forest clearing were ubiquitous in the Central America/Caribbean region. These environmental changes accompanied dissimilar initial population densities and different effects of population change on agriculture. While interacting with a host of political, socio-economic, and geographic processes, it appears that both Malthusian and Boserupian demographic processes were important drivers of deforestation. Given continued, though slowing, population growth, increased urban consumption, and future land use constraints, policy makers face myriad challenges in advancing sustainable agriculture-population dynamics in Latin America

Citation

(2009) 30 Population & Environment 222-246

Paper

The population, agriculture, and environment nexus in Latin America: country-level evidence from the latter half of the twentieth century

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Dangerous Intersections: Feminism, Population and Environment (J. Silliman & Y. King)

Editor(s)

Jael Silliman and Ynestra King

Keywords

Population explosion, environmental degradation, economic development

Abstract

Dangerous Intersections provides a multicultural and international perspective on three major global problems: environmental degradation, economic development and the population ‘explosion‘. It presents crucial alternative voices and approaches to the short-sighted policies supported by the mainstream and NGOs alike – policies that focus on the fertility of poor black women – in both North and South – as the primary threat to the ecologial viability of the plant.

Citation

Jael Silliman and Ynestra King (eds), Dangerous Intersections: Feminism, Population and Environment (Zed Books, 1997)

Book

Dangerous Intersections: Feminism, Population and Environment

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Demographic and Social Research on the Population and Environment Nexus in Australia (K. Betts)

Author

Katharine Betts ( Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne , Australia )

Keywords

Demography, Sociology, Population, Environment, Collective action

Abstract

Solving the problem of the adverse impact of human numbers on the natural environment is a collective action problem and, if we are to understand it fully, we need good interdisciplinary research which includes work by demographers and sociologists. A number of factors inhibit this work in Australia : narrow disciplinary training; the scarcity of extrinsic rewards; and, as population growth has come to depend on immigration, the risk of peer disapproval. There is also little encouragement for such research from political leaders or the public. Indeed survey data show that the more Australians worry about the state of the environment the more likely they are to want a higher migrant intake.

Citation

(2004) 26 Population & Environment 157-172

Paper

Demographic and Social Research on the Population and Environment Nexus in Australia : Explaining the Gap

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