Tag Archives: mdgs

Water Rights and Human Rights: The Poor Will not Need Our Charity if We Need Their Water (D. Zetland)

Author

David Zetland

Keywords

Human rights, property rights, institutions, political-economy, water markets, water quality, MDGs

Abstract

Each year, about 2.8 million people die due to problems with poor water supply, sanitation and hygiene. Over three-quarters of the dead are children. Some argue that a human right to clean water would improve this situation. This paper shows that human rights are not sufficient to improve access to clean water and argues that it would be more productive to give people a property right to water. Because property rights — unlike humanrights — are alienable, some portion of an individual’s rights can be exchanged for access to clean water. Besides this basic equity outcome, property rights could enrich the poor, increase the efficient use of water, and improve water supply reliability in countries with poor governance.

Citation

SSRN Working Paper Series (18 June 2010)

Paper

Water Rights and HumanRights: The Poor Will not Need Our Charity if We Need Their Water

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Gender Equality for Smarter Cities: Challenges and Progress (UN-HABITAT)

Author

UN-HABITAT

Keywords

Towns and cities gender inequalities; urbanisation

Abstract

Towns and cities are increasingly important places for tackling gender inequalities. This book highlights some of the key gender issues we face in the context of rapid urbanisation in the developing world. It also provides an overview of UN-HABITAT’s work in promoting gender equality in all its activities and programmes. Creating equal opportunities and protecting rights for both women and men contributes to better living conditions for the urban poor and achievement of the Millennium development goals.

Citation

UN-HABITAT, Gender Equality for Smarter Cities: Challenges and Progress(UN-HABITAT, 2009)

Report

Gender Equality for Smarter Cities: Challenges and Progress

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Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Sustainability through…Technology Transfer (K. Bosselmann)

Author

Klaus Bosselmann

Keywords

Clean development mechanism; climate change; environmental sustainability; environmentally sound technology; intellectual property rights; millennium development goals; multilateral environmental agreements; poverty alleviation; technology transfer

Abstract

To achieve the Millennium Development Goals, international technology transfer can play a major role for poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability. At present, there are economic, social and legal (rather than technical) barriers preventing the transfer of environmentally sound technology (EST) from a wider use in international regimes. Removing these barriers requires greater political and regulatory efforts both domestically and internationally. To enable EST transfer, developed States need to improve domestic market conditions such as removal of negative subsidies and barriers to foreign investment, targeted fiscal incentives and law reforms favouring sustainable production and use of energy. There is no realistic perspective for international EST transfer as long as it is disadvantaged domestically. A coherent EST transfer regime is only possible through greater governmental intervention at the national and international level, including environmental regulations, national systems of innovation, and creating an enabling environment for EST. Such intervention should include effective public-private partnerships, both within and between States. Partnerships, if guided by law, could ensure EST innovation more efficiently than purely State-driven or market-driven EST transfers. In search for a model, the EST transfer regime under the Vienna Ozone Layer Convention and the Montreal Protocol deserves recognition. For example, the clean development mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol allows for considerable scope for EST transfer. The potential of EST transfer for climate change and for meeting the Millennium Development Goals has yet to be realized.

Citation

(2006) 2(1) Law, Environment and Development Journal 19

Paper

Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Sustainability through Improved Regimes of Technology Transfer

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Right to water and access to water: an assessment (P. B. Anand)

Author

P. B. Anand

Keywords

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); right to water; poverty; justice; governance; access to water.

Abstract

This paper examines the scope for a rights-based perspective on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by focusing on right to water. The paper adapts Hohfeldian framework of elements of a right developed by Wenar. According to this, a right should be interpreted in terms of powers, privileges, claims and immunities. This framework highlights the inter-connections between various aspects of governance and the effectiveness of a right to water. The conjecture whether the poor are more likely to have access to water when there is a right to water is examined with data (from WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme) pertaining to a small sample of countries where a right to water has been promulgated and some others where such right has not been promulgated. The impact of governance on improving access to water is examined using indicators from Governance Matters V (Kaufman et al. (2006)). This analysis suggests that mechanisms of governance may be more important in improving access to water than a formal articulation of a right to water. Some challenges to operationalising a right to water are discussed.

Citation

(2007) 19(4) Journal of International Development, 511-526.

Paper

Right to water and access to water: an assessment.

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… Human Rights, International Environmental and Sustainable (Development) Law (E. Hey)

Author

Ellen Hey

Keywords

MDGs, human rights law, fragmentation of international law

Abstract

Why have we not done better, given that the MDGs have been part of humanrights law for six decades? This essay points to the fragmented nature of the international institutional framework – or international governance structure – as a factor that has contributed to our failure. This fragmented institutional setting has led to a fragmented approach to international law. Finally, this essay considers how international law, despite its fragmented nature, might further the integrated approach evident from the MDGs. It suggests that by developing procedures such as the World Bank Inspection Panel and the Aarhus Compliance Mechanisms integrated approaches to the application of international can be developed by enabling the law to be applied in context.

Citation

( 21 March 2009 ) Working Paper

Paper

The MDGs Archeology, Institutional Fragmentation and International Law:
Human Rights, International Environmental and Sustainable (Development) Law

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