Tag Archives: history

The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics (R. F. Nash)

Author

Rodrick Frazier Nash

Keywords

environmental rights, policy, environmental ethics, history

Abstract

Charting the history of contemporary philosophical and religious beliefs regarding nature, Roderick Nash focuses primarily on changing attitudes toward nature in the United States. His work is the first comprehensive history of the concept that nature has rights and that American liberalism has, in effect, been extended to the nonhuman world.

Citation

Rodrick Frazier Nash, The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics (Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1989)

Book

The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics

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Superfund at 30 (M.L. Judy & K.N. Probst)

Author(s)

Martha L. Judy and Katherine Nicole Probst

Keywords

Superfund, CERCLA, Trust fund, taxes, environmental, brownfields, cost recovery, liability, natural resources damages, contribution, joint and several, cleanup, spill, emergency, remediation, removal, history, EPA, NPL, environmental policy, environmental economics, environmental liability

Abstract

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction 192
I. Cleaning Up Contaminated Sites 200
A. Program Accomplishments 205
B. NPL Listings/Deletions 206
C. Construction Complete 209
D. Government Performance Results Act Measures 210
E. Removal Actions 212
II. Paying for Cleanup: Taxes and Liability 213
A. Superfund Trust Fund 216
B. Liability as a Funding Mechanism 221
C. Spreading Costs Among Private Parties 230
III. Issues on the Horizon 241
A. Can the Quality and Pace of Cleanups Be Improved? 242
B. What Steps Need to Be Taken to Ensure a Robust and Reliable Long-term Stewardship – or Post-cleanup – Program? 243
C. Will Private Parties Continue To Contribute Work and Money to NPL Cleanups, and Will They Continue To Clean Up Sites on Their Own? 244
D. What Are the Funding Needs for the Superfund Program over the Next Five to Ten Years? 246
E. Improving Superfund Requires Increased Program Evaluation and Greater Transparency 247

Citation

(2009) 11 Vermont Journal of Environmental Law 191

Paper

Superfund at 30

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The Age of Oil…Mythology, History & Future of the World’s Most Controversial Resource (L. Maugeri)

Author

Leonardo Maugeri

Keywords

Resource; Oil; Oil production; Energy crisis

Abstract

Explores the obsessions and misperceptions surrounding the resource that has shaped our lives, demonstrating that oil will be with us for a long time to come.

Oil is the most vital resource of our time. Because it is so important, misperceptions about the black gold abound. Leonardo Maugeri clears the cobwebs by describing the colorful history of oil, and explaining the fundamentals of oil production. He delivers a unique, fascinating, and controversial perspective on the industry—as only an insider could. The history of the oil market has been marked, since its inception, by a succession of booms and busts, each one leading to a similar psychological climax and flawed political decisions. In a single generation, we’ve experienced the energy crisis of 1973; the dramatic oil countershock of 1986; the oil collapse of 1998-99 that gave rise to the idea of oil as just another commodity; and the sharp price increases following hurricane Katrina’s devastation in the Gulf of Mexico . Today, we are experiencing a global oil boom that, paradoxically, seems to herald a gloomy era of scarcity exacerbated by growing consumption and the threat from Islamic terrorism in the oil-rich Middle East .

Maugeri argues that the pessimists are wrong. In the second part of his book, he debunks the main myths surrounding oil in our times, addressing whether we are indeed running out of oil, and the real impact of Islamic radicalism on oil-rich regions. By translating many of the technical concepts of oil productions into terms the average reader can easily grasp, Maugeri answers our questions. Ultimately, he concludes that the wolf is not at the door. We are facing neither a problem of oil scarcity, nor an upcoming oil blackmail by forces hostile to the West. Only bad political decisions driven by a distorted view of current problems (and who is to blame for them) can doom us to a gloomy oil future.

Citation

Leonardo Maugeri, The Age of Oil: The Mythology, History, and Future of the World’s Most Controversial Resource (Praeger, 2006)

Book

The Age of Oil: The Mythology, History, and Future of the World’s Most Controversial Resource

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Environmentalism in periods of rapid societal transformation: the legacy…(B.Barrett)

Author

Brendan F. D. Barrett

Keywords

Sustainability; human and natural systems; complexity; population; Industrial Revolution; Meiji Restoration; rural societies; industrialisation; pollution; urban; social movements; human rights.

Abstract

The pursuit of environmental sustainability implies dramatic transformation of modern society in order to bring about a more benign interaction between human and natural systems. It is now widely recognized that this paradigm shift would require the restructuring of society in order to deal with increasingly complex environmental problems and the current high rates at which natural resources are being depleted. These changes need to be made quickly, say within the next 50 years, since the worlds population in 2050 would be between 10 and 12 billion.
Examples of breathtakingly rapid societal change in the past include the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom and the Meiji Restoration in Japan. The direction of change, however, was a move away from the relatively close (though not necessarily harmonious) relationship between humans and nature found in rural societies to one characterized by distance and isolation in the new factories and industrial towns. Meanwhile, pollution problems, which have always been associated with urbanity, became more widespread and intensified.
Related to this, the notions of environmentalism began to take shape in both countries during these periods. In the United Kingdom, the roots of environmentalism are intertwined with the Romantic Movement that sought to conserve the natural beauty of the land and cultural heritage of the nation. In Japan, the Meiji Restoration witnessed the emergence of new social movements backed by intellectuals fighting for popular rights and against development.

Citation

(1999) 7(4) Sustainable Development, 178-190.

Paper

Environmentalism in periods of rapid societal transformation: the legacy of the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom and the Meiji Restoration in Japan.

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