Tag Archives: forests

Payment for ‘ecosystem services’ and the ‘green economy’: green-washing or something new? (K. Wilkinson)

Author

Kate Wilkinson

Keywords

ecofeminism, green economy, payment for ecosystem services, ecosystems, environment, capitalism, free market, economics, REDDES, REDD+, UNFCCC, ITTO, forests, natural resources, gender, participation

Abstract

Using an ecofeminist critical analysis, this paper examines the extent to which two forest-related ‘payments for ecosystem services’ (PES) schemes maintain a mainstream anti-nature and exploitative conceptualization of human/nature relationships. It does so by integrating various ecofeminist themes to analyse the two PES schemes and to assess the extent to which they can protect women and nature while marketizing and commodifying the environment. The author examines the justifications for integrating PES into a green economy, including the proposed benefits resulting from the implementation of PES, and safeguards ensuring the inclusion and participation of local communities. The author concludes that an ecofeminist examination highlights the inherently exploitative nature of PES and its continuation of the currently exploitative free market paradigm.

Citation

(2014) 5/2 Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 168-191

Paper

Payment for ‘ecosystem services’ and the ‘green economy’: green-washing or something new?

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Sustainability Unpacked: Food, Energy and Water for Resilient Environments & Societies (K.A. Vogt, et al)

Author(s)

Kristiina A. Vogt,
Toral Patel-Weynand,
Maura Shelton,
Daniel J. Vogt,
John C. Gordon,
Cal Mukumoto,
Asep S. Suntana
Patricia A. Roads

Keywords

Sustainability, Societal and Ecosystem Change, Scientific Approach, Country Resource, Fossil Energy Endowments and Externalities, Forests, Human Societies, Soil and Water Connection to Food, Adaptation, Mitigation, Climate and Soils, Solar Capital, Climate Change, Managing Natural and Human Capital, Sustainable Ecosystems

Abstract

Food, water and energy form some of the basic elements of sustainability considerations. This ground-breaking book examines and decodes these elements, exploring how a range of countries make decisions regarding their energy and bio-resource consumption and procurement. The authors consider how these choices impact not only the societies and environments of those countries, but the world in general.

To achieve this, the authors review the merits of various sustainability and environmental metrics, and then apply these to 34 countries that are ranked low, medium or high on the human development index. The book assesses their resource capacities and the environmental impacts, both within and outside their country boundaries, from consuming food, water, and energy. The final section uses the lessons derived from the earlier analyses of resource consumption to explore the importance of geography, climates and sustainable management of forests and other natural resources for building resilient societies in the future.

Citation

Kristiina A. Vogt, et al, Sustainability Unpacked: Food, Energy and Water for Resilient Environments and Societies (Earthscan, 2010)

Book

Sustainability Unpacked: Food, Energy and Water for Resilient Environments and Societies

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Legal Mechanisms for Addressing Wartime Damage to Tropical Forests (J.E. Austin & C.E. Bruch)

Author(s)

Jay E. Austin Carl E. Bruch

Keywords

International environmental law; international law of war; warfare; military activities; protected areas; tropical forests

Abstract

The tactics of war have profound impacts on tropical forest ecosystems, and modern weapons technologies have greatly increased their destructive potential. Some legal protection is afforded by customary international law, and the international community responded to the Vietnam War by adopting, inter alia, the 1977 Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions and the 1976 Environmental Modification Convention, which prohibit “long-term” (or “long-lasting”), “widespread,” and “severe” environmental damage. Nevertheless, many regard these and other existing conventions as inadequate, especially as applied to internal conflicts. More recently, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature-World Conservation Union (IUCN) put forth a Draft Convention on the Prohibition of Hostile Military Activities in Internationally Protected Areas. This paper analyzes the IUCN Draft Convention-particularly issues of prior designation of protected areas, waiver of protection, and monitoring and enforcement-and compares it to other relevant area-based treaties, such as the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property and the 1972 World Heritage Convention. The paper also highlights other recent legal developments that may help prevent, remediate, or punish wartime damage to tropical forests, such as the nascent International Criminal Court; liability mechanisms for providing compensation for wartime damage; environmental guidelines for military, peacekeeping and humanitarian operations; import bans and trade embargoes; and a proposed no-fault remediation fund.

Citation

(2003) 16 Journal of Sustainable Forestry 161-192

Paper

Legal Mechanisms for Addressing Wartime Damage to Tropical Forests

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Deforestation, Environment, and Sustainable Development (D.K. Vajpeyi)

Editor

Dhirendra K. Vajpeyi

Keywords

Deforestation; Environment; Economic development; Biological diversity; Ecosystems, Species, Genetic resources; Carbon sinks; Climate change; Soil erosion; desertification; Water cycling

Abstract

Analyzes of deforestation and its impact on the environment and economic development.

According to available estimates, forests cover more than one quarter of the world’s total area. About sixty percent of these forests are situated in tropical countries. However, these forests are disappearing at a very fast pace. Between 1980 and 1995, an area larger than Mexico had been deforested. This accelerated destruction of forests poses a serious threat to the environmental and economic well-being of the earth. Several studies have demonstrated that natural forests are the single most important repository of terrestrial biological diversity–of ecosystems, species, and genetic resources. Forests also act as major carbon sinks, absorbing massive quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Deforestation, according to these studies, is directly linked to adverse climate change, soil erosion, desertification, and water cycling. Until recently deforestation was deemed to be a local/national problem. However, increased awareness and scientific data have pointed out that the problem transcends national boundaries. Deforestation affects the entire earth’s environment and economic development.

This collection of essays analyzes the forces responsible for deforestation, the governmental policies that effect this destruction and the roles multilateral aid agencies, NGOs, play in the environmental debate. The collection critically examines the principles and criteria suggested by forest-experts for a sustained economic growth vis-á-vis forest stewardship in Latin America , Asia, Africa , and the Middle East . An invaluable resource for scholars, students, researchers, and policymakers involved with environmental and public policy issues.

Citation

Dhirendra K. Vajpeyi (ed), Deforestation, Environment, and Sustainable Development: A Comparative Analysis (Praeger, 2001)

Book

Deforestation, Environment, and Sustainable Development: A Comparative Analysis

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Human rights and climate change (collection of articles edited by S. Humphreys)

Author

Multiple authors (collection) edited by Stephen Humphreys (forward by Mary Robinson):

Stephen Humphreys (including introduction and conclusion), Simon Caney, Dinah Shelton, Peter Newell, Sam Adelman, Philippe Cullet, Francis Seymour, Paul Hunt & Rajat Khosla, Jon Barnett, John C. Mutter & Kye Mesa Barnard.

Keywords

Environmental justice, human rights, climate change, developing countries, vulnerability, forced migration, climate harms, moral thresholds, extraterritorial responsibility, equitable utilisation of the atmosphere, corporate accountability, Kyoto protocol, equity dimensions, forests, managing risks and trade-offs, highest attainable standard of health, evolution of disasters and inequality.

Abstract

As the effects of climate change continue to be felt, appreciation of its future transformational impact on numerous areas of public law and policy is set to grow. Among these, human rights concerns are particularly acute. They include forced mass migration, increased disease incidence and strain on health care systems, threatened food and water security, the disappearance and degradation of shelter, land, livelihoods and cultures, and the threat of conflict. This inquiry into the human rights dimensions of climate change looks beyond potential impacts to examine the questions raised by climate change policies: accountability for extraterritorial harms; constructing reliable enforcement mechanisms; assessing redistributional outcomes; and allocating burdens, benefits, rights and duties among perpetrators and victims, both public and private. The book examines a range of so-far unexplored theoretical and practical concerns that international law and other scholars and policy-framers will find increasingly difficult to ignore. It is the first attempt to examine the interface between human rights and climate change and picks out areas where interactions between the two disciplines can be found. Hence this collection examines where an interface is already taking place and forecasts the type of techniques and strategies it may ‘engender or adopt’.

Citation

(2010, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge)

Paper

Human Rights and Climate Change

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail