ecofeminism, green economy, payment for ecosystem services, ecosystems, environment, capitalism, free market, economics, REDDES, REDD+, UNFCCC, ITTO, forests, natural resources, gender, participation
Using an ecofeminist critical analysis, this paper examines the extent to which two forest-related ‘payments for ecosystem services’ (PES) schemes maintain a mainstream anti-nature and exploitative conceptualization of human/nature relationships. It does so by integrating various ecofeminist themes to analyse the two PES schemes and to assess the extent to which they can protect women and nature while marketizing and commodifying the environment. The author examines the justifications for integrating PES into a green economy, including the proposed benefits resulting from the implementation of PES, and safeguards ensuring the inclusion and participation of local communities. The author concludes that an ecofeminist examination highlights the inherently exploitative nature of PES and its continuation of the currently exploitative free market paradigm.
(2014) 5/2 Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 168-191
Payment for ‘ecosystem services’ and the ‘green economy’: green-washing or something new?
Burns H. Weston and David Bollier
sustainability, ecosystems, environmental protection, economics, national sovereignty, international law, green governance, paradigm shift, human rights, public policy
The vast majority of the world’s scientists agree: we have reached a point in history where we are in grave danger of destroying Earth’s life-sustaining capacity. But our attempts to protect natural ecosystems are increasingly ineffective because our very conception of the problem is limited; we treat “the environment” as its own separate realm, taking for granted prevailing but outmoded conceptions of economics, national sovereignty, and international law. Green Governance is a direct response to the mounting calls for a paradigm shift in the way humans relate to the natural environment. It opens the door to a new set of solutions by proposing a compelling new synthesis of environmental protection based on broader notions of economics and human rights and on commons-based governance. Going beyond speculative abstractions, the book proposes a new architecture of environmental law and public policy that is as practical as it is theoretically sound.
Burns H. Weston and David Bollier, Green Governance: Ecological Survival, Human Rights, and the Law of the Commons (Cambridge University Press, 2013)
Green Governance: Ecological Survival, Human Rights, and the Law of the Commons
Elizabeth Bryan, Wisdom Akpalu, Mahmud Yesuf, Claudia Ringler
Carbon market, clean development mechanism, climate change, mitigation, sub-Saharan Africa
Developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), remain marginalized in global carbon markets despite significant mitigation opportunities in agriculture and forestry. The economic potential for mitigation through agriculture in the African region is estimated at 17 per cent of the total global mitigation potential for the sector. Similarly, Africa’s forestry potential is 23 per cent of the global total for the sector. To unleash the huge potential for mitigation in SSA, carbon markets should be expanded to include projects related to agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU). Given the important synergies between agricultural mitigation and adaptation, and the difficulties in reaching out to smallholder farmers and herders, as well as the increasing poverty and hunger in the region, this article suggests that not only should carbon markets be expanded to include more AFOLU project types, but carbon markets should also increase benefits directed at smallholder farmers. Domestic policies in SSA should also be reformed to increase the profitability of environmentally sustainable practices that generate income for small producers and create investment flows for rural communities. This review paper provides an overview of global carbon markets, focusing on opportunities for carbon trading in agriculture in SSA. Major constraints to the participation of SSA in global carbon markets are discussed, and options for integrating the region into global carbon markets are proposed.
(2010) 4 Climate and Development 309
Global Carbon Market: Opportunities for sub-Saharan Africa in Agriculture and Forestry