Tag Archives: displacement

Conservation-induced Displacement: Recent Perspectives from India (G. Shahabuddin, P.L. Bhamidipati)

Authors

Ghazala Shahabuddin and Padmasai Lakshmi Bhamidipati

Keywords

Conservation, Displacement, India

Abstract

Environmental Justice is the essential peer-reviewed journal that explores the equitable treatment of all people, especially minority and low-income populations, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. Published bimonthly

Citation

(2014) 7(5) Environmental Justice 122-129

Paper

Conservation-induced Displacement: Recent Perspectives from India

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Climate-Induced Community Relocations: Creating an Adaptive Governance Framework Based in Human Rights Doctrine (R. Bronen)

Author(s)

Robin Bronen

Keywords

climigration, migration, climate change, displacement, climate refugees, southern hemisphere, global warming, ecology, humanitarian crisis, indigenous communities, Arctic, disaster relief

Abstract

The specter of millions of people fleeing their homes because of climate change has sparked an international debate about creating human rights protections for climate refugees. Though scholars and journalists have focused on the southern hemisphere, this crisis is occurring with unprecedented rapidity in the Arctic. In Alaska, temperatures have increased at twice the rate of the global average. Arctic sea ice is decreasing and permafrost is thawing. These ecological phenomena are creating a humanitarian crisis for the 200 indigenous communities that have inhabited the Arctic for millennia. Dozens of these communities are threatened because of climate-accelerated erosion, flooding, and extreme weather events. The traditional responses of hazard prevention and disaster relief are no longer protecting communities despite millions of dollars spent on erosion control and flood relief. Community relocation is the only feasible solution to permanently protect the inhabitants of these communities. This article describes the steps that federal, state, and tribal governments have taken to relocate Newtok, one of at least twelve indigenous communities in Alaska that need to relocate due to climate change. The policy and practical challenges to relocate the community are enormous and clearly demonstrate that new governance institutions need to be designed to specifically respond to climate-induced relocation. This Article ultimately proposes the creation of Guiding Principles of Climigration outlining key human rights principles that can guide an adaptive governance framework. This framework, in turn, will allow government agencies to transition their humanitarian response from protection in place to community relocation.

Citation

(2011) New York University Review of Law and Social Change 35 (2)  357

Paper

Climate-Induced Community Relocations: Creating an Adaptive Governance Framework Based in Human Rights Doctrine

 

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The Case of Awas Tingni v. Nicaragua: A New Step in the International Law of Indigenous Peoples (S. J. Anaya and C. Grossman)

Author(s)

S. James Anaya and Claudio Grossman

Keywords

indigenous communities, Nicaragua, Mayagna, sumo, environmental protection, equality, land rights, America, human rights systems, Awas Tingni, international law, logging, preservation of culture, natural resources, developing nations, displacement, sustainable development

Abstract

The people of Awas Tingni did not set about to forge an international
legal precedent with implications for indigenous peoples throughout the world, yet that is what they have done. Awas Tingni is one of numerous Mayagna, or Sumo, indigenous communities in the isolated Atlantic Coast region of Nicaragua. The Community has sought simply, but doggedly, to be secure in the peaceful possession of traditional lands. It has achieved a major step toward that
end, and more. The Community’s identity in the minds of outsiders is now merged with that of a landmark case, The Case of the Mayagna (Sumo) Awas Tingni Community v. Nicaragua, decided by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights on August 31, 2001.

Citation

(2002) 19 Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law 1.

Paper

The Case of Awas Tingni v. Nicaragua: A New Step in the International Law of Indigenous Peoples

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Environment, Equality, and Indigenous Peoples’ Land Rights in the Inter-American Human Rights System: Mayagna (Sumo) Indigenous Community of Awas Tingni v. Nicaragua (J. A. Amiott)

Author

Jennifer A. Amiott

Keywords

indigenous communities, Nicaragua, Mayagna, sumo, environmental protection, equality, land rights, America, human rights systems, Awas Tingni, international law, logging, preservation of culture, natural resources, developing nations, displacement, sustainable development

Abstract

Through history, indigenous peoples have been assaulted physically and suffered discrimination; they have seen their cultures undermined, their lands stolen, and their economies plundered; moreover, their very existence as distinct communities has been threatened. International law has evolved, however modestly, to challenge the legacy of this history and the forces that would see it continue. 
 
Throughout the world, and in the developing world in particular, many indigenous peoples live in and use forests and other areas rich in natural resources. However, developing nations – often transitioning to democracy, fighting poverty, and under pressure from multinational corporations – may promote the “development” and exploitation of the resource-rich lands used and occupied by indigenous peoples living within their borders. This push for growth and lack of recognition of indigenous property rights can result in the degradation of ancestral landholdings, the displacement of indigenous peoples, the disintegration of traditional cultures, and the loss of biologically diverse forests. The struggle of the Mayagna (Sumo) Community of Awas Tingni (Awas Tingni Community or Awas Tingni) to protect its lands from a logging concession granted by Nicaragua highlights the failure of states to protect the traditional landholdings of indigenous peoples. This case also illustrates the convergence of environmental, sustainable development, and human rights issues in indigenous land rights cases.

Citation

(2002) 32 Environmental Law 872.

Paper

Environment, Equality, and Indigenous Peoples’ Land Rights in the Inter-American Human Rights System: Mayagna (Sumo) Indigenous Community of Awas Tingni v. Nicaragua

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Environmental migration & cities in the context of global environmental change (S.B. Adamo)

Author

Susana B. Adamo

Keywords

Environment, environmental migration, cities, migration inflows, GEC impacts, risk, secondary migration, displacement

Abstract

There is a renewed interest in environmental migration and displacement that is fueled by concerns about the impacts of global environmental change on human populations. Regardless on-going debates about magnitudes and definitions, recent research on the topic shows a complex picture where environmental events are rarely the only drivers, several factors — among them the characteristics of the event and the degree of vulnerability — influence the outcome, and different types of mobility can be distinguished. Within this framework and in the context of global processes, research on the interactions among cities, environmental migration and GEC present two interrelated perspectives. On the one hand, cities are increasingly exposed to the impacts of GEC events, which can trigger environmental migration to other regions. On the other hand, they are the most common destinations of migration inflows, and environmental change outside of cities can exacerbate the influx of migrants to cities. The case of New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina dramatically illustrates these issues, highlighting the policy and governance dimensions.

Citation

(2010) Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2(3), 161–165

Paper

Environmental migration and cities in the context of global environmental change

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