Tag Archives: armed conflict

Humanitarian Law, Protection of the Environment, and Human Rights (N.A.F. Popovic)

Author(s)

Neil A. F. Popovic

Keywords

Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law, Environmental Destruction, Armed Conflict

Excerpt

Notwithstanding the relevance of international human rights to wartime environmental destruction, the international community tends to deal with war-related environmental harm through the modalities of humanitarian law. Although humanitarian law extensively regulates the conduct of war, that framework has neither proven effective in dealing with the environmental impact of war, nor does it provide remedies for affected people.

This comment proposes that increased accessibility of pertinent procedures, including human rights procedures, could provide useful mechanisms for addressing the environmental impact of armed conflict. Part II of the comment discusses the nature and extent of environmental problems associated with armed conflict. Part III discusses relevant legal principles and their limitations in relieving the environmental toll of war. Part IV presents several proposals for enhancing environmental protection in armed conflict. Part V concludes that it is necessary to expand the traditional scope of procedural and substantive mechanisms in order to ensure effective dealing with the environmental impact of war and the availability of remedies for the affected people.

Citation

(1995-6) 8 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 67-133

Paper

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts (P. Le Billon)

Author

Philippe Le Billon

Keywords

Natural resources; economic development; social development; resource wealth; curse; resource exploitation; vulnerability; of resource-dependent countries

Abstract

A generous endowment of natural resources should favour rapid economic and social development. The experience of countries like Angola and Iraq, however, suggests that resource wealth often proves a curse rather than a blessing. Billions of dollars from resource exploitation benefit repressive regimes and rebel groups, at a massive cost for local populations. This Adelphi Paper analyses the economic and political vulnerability of resource-dependent countries; assesses how resources influence the likelihood and course of conflicts; and discusses current initiatives to improve resource governance in the interest of peace. It concludes that long-term stability in resource-exporting regions will depend on their developmental outcomes, and calls for a broad reform agenda prioritising the basic needs and security of local populations.

Citation

Philippe Le Billon, Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts (Routledge, 2006)

Book

Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

War and Public Health (B.S. Levy and V.W. Sidel)

Author

Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel

Keywords

Human rights, refugees, nuclear weapons, internally displaced persons, armed conflict, landmines, mental health, biological weapons, chemical weapons, conventional weapons

Abstract

This book has two main purposes. The first is to provide a systemic survey of information on the direct and indirect consequences of war on public health and the roles that health professionals and their organizations can play in preventing war and its consequences. A wide spectrum of other individuals and their organizations, including diplomats, economists, sociologists, and policy makers, also play roles in the prevention of war and its consequences, and can benefit from this information. The second purpose of this book is to help make war and its prevention an integral part of public health education, research, and practice. The book is divided into six parts. Part I places war in the context of public health. Part II addresses the epidemiology of war and the impact of war on health, human rights, and the environment. Part III focuses on major categories of weapons and their adverse health effects. Part IV addresses the adverse effects of war on children, women, refugees and internally displaced persons, and prisoners of war. Part V addresses the health impact of five specific wars of varied type and magnitude. Part VI discusses the roles of health professionals and organizations during war and the roles they can play in preventing war and reducing its health consequences.

Citation

Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel, War and Public Health ( Oxford Scholarship Online Monographs, 2008)

Book

War and Public Health

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Prosecuting Members of the US Military for Wartime Environmental Crimes (E.T. Jensen & J. Teixeira)

Author(s)

Eric Talbot Jensen
James J. Teixeira, Jr.

Keywords

International law, law of armed conflict, law of war, military, environment

Abstract

War is inherently damaging to the environment. Though these deleterious actions are often attributed to “states” during times of armed conflict, they are normally the result of military operations conducted by members of the military who are carrying out orders from military superiors. While many have proposed systemic changes that affect how states can or should be held responsible, few have commented on the process of holding individual military personnel or commanders responsible for battlefield acts of environmental damage. This paper argues that there are sufficient laws and regulations in place to hold individuals and commanders in the United States military responsible for illegal environmental damage during wartime. Further, these laws and regulations provide sufficient penalties and other enforcement mechanisms to deter potential violators, punish convicted criminals, and protect the environment.

Citation

(2005) 17 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 651

Paper

Prosecuting Members of the U.S. Military for Wartime Environmental Crimes

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail

Green giant or straw man? Environmental pressure and civil conflict, 1961–99 (H.M. Binningsbø, et al)

Author(s)

Helga Malmin Binningsbø, Indra de Soysa, and Nils Petter Gleditsch

Keywords

Ecological footprint, Armed conflict, Neomalthusianism, Resource scarcity

Abstract

The proposition that environmental scarcity causes violent conflict attracts both popular and academic interest. Neomalthusian writers have developed theoretical arguments explaining this connection, and have conducted numerous case studies that seem to support the view that scarcity of biological assets such as land and other renewable resources causes conflict. So far there have been few systematic quantitative or comparative studies, and the few that exist have focused on particular forms of environmental degradation or on a small subset of resources, particularly mineral wealth. We test a more general argument about the effects of resource scarcity by examining the most widely-used measure of environmental sustainability: the ecological footprint. Contrary to neomalthusian thinking, we find that countries with a heavier footprint have a substantially greater chance of peace. Biocapacity and the ecological reserve also predict to peace, but these results are more fragile. Separate tests for smaller conflicts, for the post-Cold War period, and with additional control variables do not yield stronger support for the scarcity thesis. On the whole, the neomalthusian model of conflict receives little support from this analysis. We cannot exclude that erosion of the earth’s carrying capacity can increase conflict in the long run, but an empirical analysis with the ecological footprint measure does not provide any support for such a position.

Citation

(2007) 28 Population and Environment 337-353

Paper

Green giant or straw man? Environmental pressure and civil conflict, 1961–99

FacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmailFacebooktwitterpinterestlinkedintumblrmail