ecofeminism, green economy, payment for ecosystem services, ecosystems, environment, capitalism, free market, economics, REDDES, REDD+, UNFCCC, ITTO, forests, natural resources, gender, participation
Using an ecofeminist critical analysis, this paper examines the extent to which two forest-related ‘payments for ecosystem services’ (PES) schemes maintain a mainstream anti-nature and exploitative conceptualization of human/nature relationships. It does so by integrating various ecofeminist themes to analyse the two PES schemes and to assess the extent to which they can protect women and nature while marketizing and commodifying the environment. The author examines the justifications for integrating PES into a green economy, including the proposed benefits resulting from the implementation of PES, and safeguards ensuring the inclusion and participation of local communities. The author concludes that an ecofeminist examination highlights the inherently exploitative nature of PES and its continuation of the currently exploitative free market paradigm.
(2014) 5/2 Journal of Human Rights and the Environment 168-191
Payment for ‘ecosystem services’ and the ‘green economy’: green-washing or something new?
Penny Van Esterik
Food and human rights, Food security, Gender, Policy, Women
This paper explores conceptual and practical linkages between women and food, and argues that foodsecurity cannot be realized until women are centrally included in policy discussions about food. Women’s special relationship with food is culturally constructed and not a natural division of labor. Women’s identity and sense of self is often based on their ability to feed their families and others; food insecurity denies them this right. Thus the interpretation of food as a humanright requires that food issues be analyzed from a gender perspective. For example, the paper asks how the rights to food intersect with the rights of women and other human rights; what the policy implications of these intersecting rights are; and how their integration will contribute to the effort to view all human rights as mutually reinforcing, universal, and indivisible. The second half of the paper speculates on the significance of distinctions between the right to be fed, the right to food, and the right to feed for understanding the relation between gender and food.
(1999) 16 Agriculture and Human Values 225-232
Right to food; right to feed; right to be fed. The intersection of women’s rights and the right to food