Category Archives: Citizenship

Citizen Participation in the Environmental Impact Assessment Process in Guyana : Reality or Fallacy? (M.L. Bynoe)

Author

Mark Lancelot Bynoe

Keywords

Assessment, citizen, development, environmental, Guyana, impact, law, participation, permit, plan

Abstract

Since June 1996, Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) have become mandatory in Guyana for all projects anticipated to have significant impacts on the environment. Furthermore, the law, i.e. the Environmental Protection Act, that brought this stipulation into being also identifies formal channels by which citizens are expected to participate from project conception through to the resolution of conflicts. However, while the Act is explicit with regards to citizen participation, the modalities by which they can participate effectively have been operating less than optimally.

Thus, this paper seeks to examine what the law states about citizen participation and to take a critical look at the participation process in Guyana. It utilises mainly secondary sources and the authors experience in the field to determine that a lack of innovation in the participation process is conspicuously absent. Furthermore, the participation process is conducted differently for most development vis-à-vis investment projects.

The paper therefore posits as one of its main recommendations, the need for a structured citizen participation plan to improve the involvement of the stakeholders, and modus operandi that are culturally appropriate that will allow for more substantive feedback and less cynicism of the process.

Citation

(2006) 2(1) Law, Environment and Development Journal 34

Paper

Citizen Participation in the Environmental Impact Assessment Process in Guyana : Reality or Fallacy?

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War and Public Health (B.S. Levy and V.W. Sidel)

Author

Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel

Keywords

Human rights, refugees, nuclear weapons, internally displaced persons, armed conflict, landmines, mental health, biological weapons, chemical weapons, conventional weapons

Abstract

This book has two main purposes. The first is to provide a systemic survey of information on the direct and indirect consequences of war on public health and the roles that health professionals and their organizations can play in preventing war and its consequences. A wide spectrum of other individuals and their organizations, including diplomats, economists, sociologists, and policy makers, also play roles in the prevention of war and its consequences, and can benefit from this information. The second purpose of this book is to help make war and its prevention an integral part of public health education, research, and practice. The book is divided into six parts. Part I places war in the context of public health. Part II addresses the epidemiology of war and the impact of war on health, human rights, and the environment. Part III focuses on major categories of weapons and their adverse health effects. Part IV addresses the adverse effects of war on children, women, refugees and internally displaced persons, and prisoners of war. Part V addresses the health impact of five specific wars of varied type and magnitude. Part VI discusses the roles of health professionals and organizations during war and the roles they can play in preventing war and reducing its health consequences.

Citation

Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel, War and Public Health ( Oxford Scholarship Online Monographs, 2008)

Book

War and Public Health

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The Urban Village: A Charter for Democracy and Local Self-Sustainable Development (A. Magnaghi)

Author

Alberto Magnaghi

Keywords

Quality of life, environmental responsibility, sustainable development, communities, globalization

Abstract

People want a better quality of life now, genuine environmental responsibility, and local control over their own futures. The Urban Village is a seminal intellectual and practical contribution to the construction of such possibilities. It introduces new ideas, like territorial patrimony, and sustainable, local-level autonomous development, describing both the methodological aspects and the visionary, alternative communities which could become possible. Professor Magnaghi sees these as being profoundly democratic, environmentally sustainable, and embodying sufficient local economic strength to resist globalization. Another potential gain would be an increase in social well-being as measured by the quality of life, solidarity, and the development of non-commercial caring relations.

Citation

Alberto Magnaghi, The Urban Village: A Charter for Democracy and Local Self-Sustainable Development (Zed Books, 2006)

Book

The Urban Village: A Charter for Democracy and Local Self-Sustainable Development

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Fundamentalism in Public Health and Safety in Bilateral Investment Treaties (K. Yelpaala)

Author

Kojo Yelpaala

Keywords

Bilateral investment treaties, constitutional rights, fundamental rights, public health and safety, humanrights, environment, prisoner’s dilemma, bilateral unilateralism, jus cogens, arbitrability, indirect expropriation, state responsibility

Abstract

The goal of this work is to explore, examine and analyze how much of an impact BITs can lawfully have on the choices available to governments to take necessary measures for the protection of health, safety, the environment and humanrights. This calls for a return to first principles of sovereignty, constitutionalism and international law on the issues of sovereign authority with respect to domestic policy relating to security and other critical social policies. Any interpretation of the substantive content or the restraining effects of BITs must be framed against the backdrop of these first principles. Although the cases are still too few for any concrete statements to be made about the restraining impact of investment protection provisions on contracting States, there appears to be some suggestion of a serious policy chill on contracting States. In view of this, it appears useful to explore avenues of empowering States, particularly the weaker States, with regards to their obligations under current BITs. In conclusion, a State owes certain indelible duties to its citizens which it may not be surrendered or abandoned in a treaty for private profit. The State has the duty to protect its citizens not only from a hostile force but also from threats to their right to life, habitation, health and safety. Such responsibilities of the State may be said to be indelible, inherent and cannot be waived or surrendered in a treaty.

Citation

(2008) 3 Asian Journal of WTO & International Health Law and Policy 235

Paper

Fundamentalism in Public Health and Safety in Bilateral Investment Treaties [Part I]

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Dangerous Intersections: Feminism, Population and Environment (J. Silliman & Y. King)

Editor(s)

Jael Silliman and Ynestra King

Keywords

Population explosion, environmental degradation, economic development

Abstract

Dangerous Intersections provides a multicultural and international perspective on three major global problems: environmental degradation, economic development and the population ‘explosion‘. It presents crucial alternative voices and approaches to the short-sighted policies supported by the mainstream and NGOs alike – policies that focus on the fertility of poor black women – in both North and South – as the primary threat to the ecologial viability of the plant.

Citation

Jael Silliman and Ynestra King (eds), Dangerous Intersections: Feminism, Population and Environment (Zed Books, 1997)

Book

Dangerous Intersections: Feminism, Population and Environment

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