Category Archives: Biofuels

The Blood of Going Green: Using Environmental Initiatives to Account for the Human Rights Violations of the Green Movement (N. Ketabi)

Author(s)

Noushin Ketabi

Keywords

green movement, human rights violations, biofuel development, science of climate change, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, soy industry, emissions reduction

Abstract

Part I of this Note first illustrates the science of climate change and the push for biofuel development. Next, this Note uses human rights to define the problems associated with biofuel development in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, and introduces the environmental law framework that can address these human rights violation. Part II details the main human rights violations in Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay occurring at the hands of the soy industry, and surveys the main existing certification proposals that attempt to mitigate social and environmental abuses. Finally,Part III proposes ways that developed countries can collectively mitigate the negative human rights and environmental implications from biofuel development beyond their borders by implementing a comprehensive certification scheme in climate change initiatives that contain emissions reduction requirements.

Citation

(1991) 32(6) Fordham International Law Journal 1911.

Paper

The Blood of Going Green: Using Environmental Initiatives to Account for the Human Rights Violations of the Green Movement

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Climate Change in Africa (C. Toulmin)

Author

Camilla Toulmin

Keywords

Global warming, Africa, poorest people, poverty, natural disasters, conflict over oil, biofuel

Abstract

Global warming above the level of two degrees Celsius would be enormously damaging for poorer parts of the world, leading to crises with crops, livestock, water supplies and coastal areas. Within Africa, it’s likely to be the continent’s poorest people who are hit hardest. In this accessible and authoritative introduction to an often-overlooked aspect of the environment, Camilla Toulmin uses case studies to look at issues ranging from natural disasters to biofuels, and from conflict to the oil industry. Finally, the book addresses what future there might be for Africa in a carbon-constrained world

Citation

Camilla Toulmin, Climate Change in Africa (Zed Books, 2009)

Book

Climate Change in Africa

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Consumer preferences and the national treatment principle … environmental regulations … (E.B. Lydgate)

Author

Emily Barrett Lydgate

Keywords

Environment;Biofuels; Consumers; Environmental protection; International trade; Sustainability

Abstract

Considers, with reference to disputes involving the national treatment principle under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 art. III , whether consumer preferences for environmentally friendly products should justify emerging regulations.

Citation

(2011) 10(2) World Trade Review 165-188

Paper

Consumer preferences and the national treatment principle: emerging environmental regulations prompt a new look at an old problem

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Beyond the Carbon Economy: Energy Law in Transition (D. Zillman, et al)

Editor(s)

Don Zillman, Catherine Redgwell, Yinka Omorogbe, and Lila K. Barrera-Hernández

Keywords

Health, Environment, Sustainable Development, TAANSAAFL Problem, Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, Lower-Carbon Future, Climate Change, Carbon Capture and Storage, Biofuels, Public International Law, South America, Clean Energy, Africa, Heavy Duty Transition Fuels, EU Law and Policy, Wind, Nuclear Power, China, Brazil, India, Mexico, Australia, Japan, Russia, US,

Abstract

Explores topical controversies over alternative energy sources including nuclear power, and over sustainability and environmental concern versus energy supply in the developing world

Regional, sectoral and technology-based analysis, and a wide variety of national perspectives demonstrate how the law can impede or advance the shift to a significantly different world energy picture
Examines the roles of public international law and international legal bodies, regional legal structures and major international nongovernmental actors
The present energy economy, with its heavy dependence on fossil fuels, is not sustainable over the medium to long term for many interconnected reasons. Climate change is now recognized as posing a serious threat. Energy and resource decisions involving the carbon fuels therefore play a large role in this threat. Fossil fuel reserves may also be running short and many of the major reserves are in politically unstable parts of the world.

Yet citizens in nations with rapidly developing economies aspire to the benefits of the modern energy economy. China and India alone have 2.4 billion potential customers for cars, industries, and electrical services. Even so, more than half of the world’s citizens still lack access to energy. Decisions involving fossil fuels are therefore a significant part of the development equation.

This volume explains how the law can impede or advance the shift to a world energy picture significantly different from that which exists today.

It first examines the factors that create the problems of the present carbon economy, including environmental concerns and development goals. It then provides international and regional legal perspectives, examining public international law, regional legal structures, the responses of international legal bodies, and the role of major international nongovernmental actors. The book then moves on to explore sectoral perspectives including the variety of renewable energy sources, new carbon fuels, nuclear power, demand controls, and energy efficiency. Finally, the authors examine how particular States are, could, or should, be adapting legally to the challenges of moving beyond the carbon economy.

Readership: Lawyers, public policy-makers, and corporate analysts in the energy and natural resources sectors, and scholars in the fields of energy and environmental law, environmental management, development economics and sustainable development.

Citation

Don Zillman, Catherine Redgwell, Yinka Omorogbe, and Lila K. Barrera-Hernández (eds), Beyond the Carbon Economy: Energy Law in Transition (OUP, Oxford 2008)

Book

Beyond the Carbon Economy: Energy Law in Transition

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Review of Environmental, Economic and Policy Aspects of Biofuels (D. Rajagopal and D. Zilberman)

Author(s)

Deepak Rajagopal and David Zilberman

Keywords

Energy Production and Transportation, Environmental Economics & Policies, Renewable Energy, Transport Economics Policy & Planning, Energy and Environment

Abstract

The world is witnessing a sudden growth in production of biofuels, especially those suited for replacing oil like ethanol and biodiesel. This paper synthesizes what the environmental, economic, and policy literature predicts about the possible effects of these types of biofuels. Another motivation is to identify gaps in understanding and recommend areas for future work. The analysis finds three key conclusions. First, the current generation of biofuels, which is derived from food crops, is intensive in land, water, energy, and chemical inputs. Second, the environmental literature is dominated by a discussion of net carbon offset and net energy gain, while indicators relating to impact on human health, soil quality, biodiversity, water depletion, etc., have received much less attention. Third, there is a fast expanding economic and policy literature that analyzes the various effects of biofuels from both micro and macro perspectives, but there are several gaps. A bewildering array of policies – including energy, transportation, agricultural, trade, and environmental policies – is influencing the evolution of biofuels. But the policies and the level of subsidies do not reflect the marginal impact on welfare or the environment. In summary, all biofuels are not created equal. They exhibit considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in production. The impact of biofuels will also be heterogeneous, creating winners and losers. The findings of the paper suggest the importance of the role biomass plays in rural areas of developing countries. Furthermore, the use of biomass for producing fuel for cars can affect access to energy and fodder and not just access to food.

Citation

World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4341 (1 September 2007)

Paper

Review of Environmental, Economic and Policy Aspects of Biofuels

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