Coexistence between GMOs & other forms of agriculture: a purely economic issue? (M. Lee)


Maria Lee


Agriculture;Environment;EC law; Environmental protection; Farming; Genetically modified organisms; Labelling; Organic farming


Considers coexistence between genetically modified (GM), organic and conventional farming in the EU. Reviews Member States’ responsibilities under Directive 2001/18 (Deliberate Release Directive) and Commission coexistence initiatives, including the Recommendation on Guidelines on Coexistence, commenting on the Commission’s approach to coexistence as a purely economic issue. Discusses EC law labelling obligations regarding the presence of GM material in products, focusing on the 0.9 per cent threshold. Comments on responsibility for bearing the costs of coexistence.


(2008) 20(2) Journal of Environmental Law 193-212


The governance of coexistence between GMOs and other forms of agriculture: a purely economic issue?