Category Archives: Security

Humanitarian Law, Protection of the Environment, and Human Rights (N.A.F. Popovic)

Author(s)

Neil A. F. Popovic

Keywords

Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law, Environmental Destruction, Armed Conflict

Excerpt

Notwithstanding the relevance of international human rights to wartime environmental destruction, the international community tends to deal with war-related environmental harm through the modalities of humanitarian law. Although humanitarian law extensively regulates the conduct of war, that framework has neither proven effective in dealing with the environmental impact of war, nor does it provide remedies for affected people.

This comment proposes that increased accessibility of pertinent procedures, including human rights procedures, could provide useful mechanisms for addressing the environmental impact of armed conflict. Part II of the comment discusses the nature and extent of environmental problems associated with armed conflict. Part III discusses relevant legal principles and their limitations in relieving the environmental toll of war. Part IV presents several proposals for enhancing environmental protection in armed conflict. Part V concludes that it is necessary to expand the traditional scope of procedural and substantive mechanisms in order to ensure effective dealing with the environmental impact of war and the availability of remedies for the affected people.

Citation

(1995-6) 8 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 67-133

Paper

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Globalization, Environmental Justice, and Sustainable Development: The Case of Oil (Hymel)

Author

Monica L Hymel

Keywords

Energy, environment, tax, oil, environmental justice, sustainable development

Abstract

As globalization expands, poverty abounds, the environment suffers, and scientists warn of the devastation to come as earth’s temperature rises. Likewise, the last century has seen a dramatic increase in the human lifespan and life comforts. People travel the world with ease and comfort – unimaginable even 60 years ago. Oil plays a pivotal role in these problems and accomplishments. However, oil consumption has dramatically damaged our environment. Power struggles over controlling oil threaten global security. This paper discusses the economics of oil in the context of globalization, environmental justice, and sustainable development. The paper analyzes policies that have resulted in oil’s world dominance, and those policies needed to break oil’s hold on the global economy.

Citation

(2006) Macquarie Law Review; Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 06-38.

Publication

Globalization, Environmental Justice, and Sustainable Development: The Case of Oil

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Climate Change, Human Rights and Moral Thresholds (S. Caney)

Author(s)

Simon Caney

Keywords

frameworks, impacts of climate change, human rights-centered analysis, cost-benefit, security-based analyses, right to life, right to health, right to subsistence, ethics, anthropogenic climate change, violation of rights, policy, mitigation, adaptation, compensation, international relations, vulnerability

Abstract

EXTRACT:

“I argue that:

1. Climate change jeopardizes some key human rights.

2. A “human-rights”-centered analysis of the impacts of climate change enjoys several fundamental advantages over other dominant ways of thinking about climate change.

3. A “human-rights”-centered analysis of the impacts of climate change has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the kind of action that should be taken and who should bear the costs of combating climate change.”

Citation

Simon Caney, ‘Climate Change, Human Rights and Moral Thresholds’ in: Gardner et al., eds., Climate Ethics (Oxford University Press, 2010)

Paper

‘Climate Change’, Human Rights and Moral Thresholds’ in Climate Ethics

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Cultivating cacao Implications of sun-grown cacao on local food security and environmental sustainability (J.M. Belsky and S.F. Siebert)

Author(s)

Jill M. Belsky and Stephen F. Siebert

Keywords

Cacao, Cocoa, Conservation, Food security, Indonesia, Shade-grown tree crops

Abstract

The reasons why upland farmerson the Indonesian island of Sulawesi areengaged in a cacao boom and its long termimplications are addressed in the context ofprotected area management regulations, andpolitical and economic conditions inPost-Suharto, Indonesia. In the remote casestudy village of Moa in Central Sulawesi, wefound that while few households cultivatedcacao in the early 1990s, all had planted cacaoby 2000. Furthermore, the vast majoritycultivate cacao in former food-crop focusedswidden fields under full-sun conditions.Farmers cultivate cacao to establish propertyrights in light of a land shortage driven inpart by the prohibition of farming and forestproduct collecting in a nearby national park,and to secure a future source of income, aconcern that has been exacerbated byIndonesia’s economic crisis. However,conversion of swidden fields to sun-grown cacaoconstrains future food productionopportunities, increases susceptibility todrought stress and potential soil nutrient andorganic matter losses, and increases householddependence on a commodity that is subject toextreme price volatility. These factors raisesignificant concerns for local food securityand agricultural sustainability.

Citation

(2003) 20 Agriculture and Human Values 277-285

Paper

Cultivating cacao Implications of sun-grown cacao on local food security and environmental sustainability

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Biosecurity Reconsidered: Calibrating Biological Threats and Responses (G.D. Koblentz)

Author

Gregory D. Koblentz

Keywords

Security, biological threats, biosecurity, risks, research, prevent, response

Abstract

Advances in science and technology, the rise of globalization, the emergence of new diseases, and the changing nature of conflict have increased the risks posed by naturally occurring and man-made biological threats. A growing acceptance of a broader definition of security since the end of the Cold War has facilitated the rise of biosecurity issues on the international security agenda. Developing strategies to counter biological threats is complicated by the lack of agreement on the definition of biosecurity, the diverse range of biological threats, and competing perspectives on the most pressing biological threats. A comprehensive definition of biosecurity that encompasses naturally occurring, accidental, and deliberate disease outbreaks can help to further research, analysis, and policymaking. Operationalizing this broad conception of biosecurity requires a taxonomy of biological threats based on a levels-of-analysis approach that identifies which types of actors are potential sources of biological threats and the groups most at risk from these threats. A biosecurity taxonomy can provide a common framework for the multidisciplinary research and analysis necessary to assess and manage these risks. It also has implications for how to prevent and respond to biological threats, as well as for the future of biosecurity research.

Citation

(2010) 34 International Security 96-132

Paper

Biosecurity Reconsidered: Calibrating Biological Threats and Responses

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