Category Archives: Anthropogenic

Editorial – The discourse of ‘biocultural’ rights and the search for new epistemic parameters: moving beyond essentialisms and old certainties in an age of Anthropocene complexity? (A. Grear)

Author(s)

Anna Grear

Keywords

climate change, biocultural rights, essentialism, antropocene discourse, climate vulnerability, epistemic parameters

Abstract

There can be little doubt of the multiple complexities facing law in the twenty-first century. Climate change alone presents a challenge of unprecedented global complexity for legal systems – a complexity arising, moreover, directly from the ‘complexity of the climate system [itself:] its myriad of parts, interactions, feedbacks and unsolved mysteries’. 1 In the face of such complexities, law’s traditional institutional silos and path-dependent responses (such as the institutional and doctrinal separation between, for example, human rights law and climate change law) seem increasingly exposed as inadequate.

Citation

(2015) 6 (1) Journal of Human Rights and Environment 1-6

Paper

Editorial — The discourse of ‘biocultural’ rights and the search for new epistemic parameters: moving beyond essentialisms and old certainties in an age of Anthropocene complexity?

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Climate Change, Human Rights and Moral Thresholds (S. Caney)

Author(s)

Simon Caney

Keywords

frameworks, impacts of climate change, human rights-centered analysis, cost-benefit, security-based analyses, right to life, right to health, right to subsistence, ethics, anthropogenic climate change, violation of rights, policy, mitigation, adaptation, compensation, international relations, vulnerability

Abstract

EXTRACT:

“I argue that:

1. Climate change jeopardizes some key human rights.

2. A “human-rights”-centered analysis of the impacts of climate change enjoys several fundamental advantages over other dominant ways of thinking about climate change.

3. A “human-rights”-centered analysis of the impacts of climate change has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the kind of action that should be taken and who should bear the costs of combating climate change.”

Citation

Simon Caney, ‘Climate Change, Human Rights and Moral Thresholds’ in: Gardner et al., eds., Climate Ethics (Oxford University Press, 2010)

Paper

‘Climate Change’, Human Rights and Moral Thresholds’ in Climate Ethics

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Global warming in an unequal world: a case for environmental colonialism (S. Narain and A. Agarwal).

Author(s)

Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain

Keywords

Carbon dioxide; China; India; developing countries; greenhouse gases (GHGs); climate change; human rights; ‘luxury emissions’; ‘subsistence emissions’; ‘survival emissions’.

Abstract

The idea that developing countries like India and China must share the blame for heating up the earth and destablising its climate, as espoused in a recent study published in the United States by the WRI in collaboration with the UN, is an excellent example of environmental colonialism. The report of the WRI is based less on science and more on politically motivated and mathematical jugglery. Its main intention seems to be to blame developing countries for global warming and perpetuate the current global inequality in the use of the earth’s environment and its resources.

Citation

Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain, Global warming in an unequal world: a case for environmental colonialism (1990, Centre of Science and the Environment, New Dehli, India)

Paper

Global warming in an unequal world: a case for environmental colonialism.

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The Modern Military and the Environment: The Laws of Peace and War (W.A. Wilcox, Jr.)

Author

William A. Wilcox, Jr.

Keywords

Armed conflict; war; environment; machines; chemicals; soldiers; military’s impact; civil penalties; sovereign immunity; water rights

Abstract

The battle is an old one: man versus nature. And in modern society, man includes the military. Machines. Chemicals. Who wins the battle and at what cost? This practical analysis of the conflict between national security requirements and environmental responsibility looks at just that.

William Wilcox examines the most common environmental issues that the military faces during wartime and peacetime and provides an introduction to the legal authorities, including statutes, regulations, and executive orders, governing the application of environmental law to military activities.

The book also illuminates the tension between environmentalists and regulators concerned with the damages that military development, testing, and training operations inflict on the environment and military leaders dedicated to using actual field conditions to prepare soldiers for war. In addition, this book addresses environmentalists’ desire for greater accountability from the military, which has a history of dumping, spilling, stockpiling, and launching harmful chemicals.

Although some exemptions from environmental compliance have been granted to the military, federal agencies are sometimes held to higher standards than private sector companies. Wilcox, an experienced environmental attorney and former military attorney, focuses on the legal framework in which environmental issues are addressed and examines how policy translates into legal application. He also examines the changing relationship between the military and the environment by exploring environmental law as it applies to the military domestically and the impact of international environmental law on combat operations.

In addition to addressing such environmental laws as the National Environmental Policy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the author provides an overview of the laws governing access to information concerning the military’s impact on the environment. Other topics covered include civil penalties and sovereign immunity, water rights.

Citation

William A. Wilcox, Jr., The Modern Military and the Environment: The Laws of Peace and War (Government Institutes, 2007)

Book

The Modern Military and the Environment: The Laws of Peace and War

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War and the Environment: Military Destruction in the Modern Age (C.E. Closmann)

Author

Charles E. Closmann

Keywords

Military conflict; environment; human suffering

Abstract

In recent times, the devastation occurring in places like Darfur has focused the world’s attention on the intertwined relationship of military conflict and the environment — and the attendant human suffering.

In War and the Environment, eleven scholars explore, among other topics, the environmental ravages of trench warfare in World War I, the exploitation of Philippine forests for military purposes from the Spanish colonial period through 1945, William Tecumseh Sherman’s scorched-earth tactics during his 1864–65 March to the Sea, and the effects of wartime policy upon U.S. and German conservation practices during World War II.

Citation

Charles E. Closmann, War and the Environment: Military Destruction in the Modern Age (TAMU Press, 2009)

Book

War and the Environment: Military Destruction in the Modern Age

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